Mathematics Assessment Anchor Glossary
Grades 7 & 8
The definitions for this glossary were taken from one or more of the following sources: Webster’s Dictionary, various mathematics dictionaries, the PA Mathematics Standards glossary and various textbook glossaries.
A triangle that has each angle measuring less than 90°.
Angles that share a common side and common vertex and do not overlap.
Alternate exterior angles:
A pair of angles located outside a set of parallel lines and on opposite sides of the transversal.
Alternate interior angles:
A pair of angles located between a set of parallel lines and on opposite sides of the transversal.
A graphic method for showing a summary of data using median, quartiles and extremes of data.
Two angles whose measures, when added together, equal 90°.
An event made up of two or more simple events.
A two-dimensional system in which the coordinates of a point are its distances from both a horizontal and a vertical line called the axes. The pairs of numbers are called ordered pairs. The first number, called the x-coordinate, designates the distance along the horizontal axis. The second number, called the y-coordinate, designates the distance along the vertical axis. The point at which the two axes intersect has the coordinates (0,0) and is called the origin.
Corresponding angles (1):
When a transversal intersects two lines, corresponding angles are on the same side of the transversal and on the same side of the given lines. In the figure below, angles 1 and 2 are corresponding.
Corresponding angles (2):
Angles in the same relative position in similar or congruent figures.
A triangle whose sides are all the same length.
A statement of probability based on the results of a series of trials.
Two events in which the outcome of one event does not affect the outcome of the other event.
A triangle that has exactly two congruent sides.
An equation whose graph in a coordinate plane is a straight line.
Mutually exclusive events:
Two events that cannot occur at the same time.
A two-dimensional shape that can be folded to create a three-dimensional figure.
A triangle with one angle that measures more than 90º.
Order of operations:
Rules describing what sequence to use in evaluating expressions. (1) Perform operations in grouping symbols, (2) Evaluate exponents, (3) Multiply or divide from left to right, (4) Add or subtract from left to right.
The product of an integer multiplied by itself (e.g., 121 is a perfect square because 11x11=121).
Possible orders, or arrangements of a set of items. Placing these items in a different order results in a new permutation.
A three-dimensional solid that has two congruent and parallel faces that are polygons. The remaining faces are rectangles. Prisms are named by their bases.
An equation showing that two ratios are equal.
A formula for finding the length of a side of a right triangle when the lengths of two sides are given. (leg2 + leg2 = hypotenuse 2 or a2 + b2 = c2)
A triangle with no congruent sides.
A graph with points plotted to show a relationship between two variables.
A form of writing very large or very small numbers using a number greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10 multiplied by a power of 10 (e.g., 4.7 x 109 = 4,700,000,000).
A data display that shows groups of data arranged by place value.
Two angles whose measures, when added together, equal 180°.
The sum of the areas of all of the faces of a three-dimensional figure.
A statement of the probability of an event without doing an experiment or analyzing data.
Vertical angles: A pair of opposite congruent angles formed when two lines intersect.
*Note: Angle MRN and angle PRQ are also vertical angles.