a comparison using like or as


    A comparison of two or more things not using like or as


    Exaggeration or overstatement.


    Giving human-qualities to non-human things


    Something happens that was the opposite of what was expected.


    A judgment based on a personal point of view.

    author's purpose

    The author's intent either to inform or teach someone about something, to entertain people, or to persuade or convince their audience to do or not do something.


    The repetition of initial consonant sounds in neighboring words.


    An implied or indirect reference in literature to a familiar person, place or event.


    The story of a person's life written by himself or herself.


    The story of a person's life written by someone other than the subject of the work.

    Cause and Effect

    Cause statements stem from actions and events, and effects are what happen as a result of the action or event.


    The method an author uses to reveal characters and their various personalities.


    the high point of suspense in a short story or novel.


    To find the similarities between two things.


    The problem or struggle in a short story or novel.

    context clues

    Information from the reading that identifies a word or group of words.


    To find differences between two things.


    conversation between people in a literary work


    Distinguish, tell apart and recognize differences between two or more items.


    A newspaper or magazine article that gives the opinions of the editors or publishers; an expression of opinion that resembles such an article.


    To make an overstatement or to stretch the truth.


    A story or novel that is not true; it is made up from the imagination.

    Figurative Language

    Language that cannot be taken literally since it was written to create a special effect or feeling.

    First Person

    A personal point of view using the "I" point of view. May also contain me, our, we, us.

    Free Verse

    Poetry that does not have meter or rhyme scheme. It sounds more like regular speech.


    A conclusion, drawn from specific information, that is used to make a broad statement about a topic or person.


    A word or group of words in a literary work which appeal to one or more of the senses: sight, taste, touch, hearing and smell using figurative language.


    understandings gained by "reading between the lines"

    Informational Text

    It is nonfiction, written primarily to convey factual information. (e.g., textbooks, newspapers, reports, directions, brochures, technical manuals, etc.).


    The use of a word or phrase to mean the exact opposite of its literal or usual meaning


    A light or humorous verse form of five lines, of which lines 1, 2 and 5 rhymes and lines 3 and 4 rhyme.

    Main Idea

    The main idea is the author's central thought; the topic sentence of a paragraph.


    The repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry.


    The emotion created in the reader


    Text that tells a story. It may contain dialogue.


    Writing that is true.


    The use of words whose sounds express or suggest their meaning (ex.: hiss, pop, bang)


    The sequence in which the author arranges events in a story. The structure often includes the rising action, the climax, the falling action and the resolution.

    Point of view

    who tells the story (1st, 2nd, 3rd person)


    An organizational structure in nonfiction texts, where the author typically presents a problem and possible solutions to it.


    An organizational structure in nonfiction texts, where the author typically finds the similarities and differences between two objects.


    An organizational structure in nonfiction texts, where the author typically shows an order of events in time order OR by using time order words (first, second, next, then).

    Name-calling propaganda

    an attack on a person instead of an issue.

    bandwagon propaganda

    attempts to persuade the reader to do, think or buy something because it is popular or because "everyone" is doing it

    red herring propaganda

    attempt to distract the reader with details not relevant to the argument

    emotional appeal propaganda

    attempt to persuade the reader by using words that appeal to the reader's emotions instead of to logic or reason.

    testimonial propaganda

    to persuade the reader by using a famous person to endorse a product or idea (for instance, the celebrity endorsement).

    repetition propaganda

    attempts to persuade the reader by repeating a message over and over again.

    sweeping generalization (stereotyping) propaganda

    makes an oversimplified statement about a group based on limited information.

    circular argument propaganda

    states a conclusion as part of the proof of the argument.

    appeal to numbers, facts, or statistics propaganda

    attempts to persuade the reader by showing how many people think something is true.


    The solution to the conflict of the story.


    Identical or very similar recurring final sounds in words usually at the end of lines of a poem.


    The pattern or beat of a poem.


    The time and place in which a story unfolds.


    A lyric poem of fourteen lines whose rhyme scheme is fixed.


    A device in literature where an object represents an idea.


    a major idea broad enough to cover the entire scope of a literary work.

    Third Person

    the "third person" point of view presents the events of the story from a narrator's point of view (he, she, it, they, them, their, her, his, or character's names are used)


    The attitude of the author toward the audience and characters (e.g., serious or humorous).


    used to influence people to believe, buy, or do something.